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Oral and Dental Health

Oral and Dental Health

When we mention oral and dental health, the first thing that comes to mind should be how important it is both from the physiological and cosmetic aspects. However, our purpose at the end of this article, in which we will address the physiological importance of our teeth at first, is to talk about the structure of our teeth which is very important for our dental health but also which we ignore occasionally.

Teeth are a vital part of our body, which provide;

*the ability to chew

*the ability to swallow and gulp properly

*the ability to talk and make noise

*aesthetic integrity to it.

Moreover, they play a really important role in our lives with their psychological and sociological impact.

An adult has 32 teeth.

Among those, there are 8 incisor teeth, 4 canine teeth, 8 premolar teeth and 12 molar teeth consisting of 4 wisdom teeth.

Incisor teeth are considered as sharp foreteeth which are used to disrupt the food we put inside our mouth.

Canine teeth are sharp foreteeth responsible for holding and chopping up food. 

Premolar teeth have two sharp tips and they are used to chop up and crush food.

Lastly, molar teeth are considered cheek tooth used to chew and grind up food.


What does a healthy tooth consist of?

A healthy mouth generally consists of these structures below;

Crown: Crown is the actual part of the tooth and it is the only part we can see with naked eyes. The crown’s shape expresses the function of the teeth. For example, incisor teeth are for disrupting the food and for that they’re scalpriform, as for molar teeth, they have flat surfaces for grinding up.

Gingival Line: It is the line where the structures tooth and gingival merge. Without proper brushing and regular teeth care, plaque and tophus develop on the gingival line and this can cause gingivitis and other gingival diseases. However, a worse feature of these diseases is that they can damage various vital organs of our body, notably the heart.

Root: It is the part of the tooth which is impacted to the bone. The root almost makes up for 2/3 of the tooth and it holds the tooth in its place.

Ivory: It is the outmost layer of the tooth. Ivory is also the hardest and most mineral-having tissue of the body. Hydroxyl apatite makes up for 90% of the inorganic structure which is among the main inorganic components of the ivory. Besides that, there are calcium phosphate, sodium and magnesium, too. Even though it is such a solid structure, without proper teeth care dental caries may occur.

Dentine: It is the tooth layer under the ivory. Dentine, which covers a major part of the tooth tissue, has a yellowish white color and is half-transparent. Even though dentine, which is harder than even  a compact bone, shows resemblance to a bone in the structural, developmental and chemical aspects, unlike hard and fragile ivory it can resist slight deformations and is very resilient. Dentine’s tissue is less mineralized and less fragile compared to the ivory’s tissue. However, if the dental caries proceeds into the ivory, the next stop will be the dentine. In this part, there are millions of canaliculi directly opening up to the dental pulp.

Dental Pulp: It is the soft tissue consisting of blood vessels and nerve tissues in the center of the tooth. When the dental caries reaches the dental pulp, an ache starts to occur.



Oral and dental health is directly related to our daily routine and eating habits. That’s why revising the eating habits ensures preventing periodontal diseases. Elements like sugary food, acid-containing food, food which stick to the tooth and smoking affect our periodontal health negatively. Our brushing and tooth care routine, hot and cold nutriments and of course genetical factors are also elements that affect our oral and dental health. To prevent the negative systemic effects of bacteria and viruses on our body, which can start their journey from the mouth entrance, preserving our oral and dental health is of great importance. 

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